Evolution of music research paper

Early comparative musicologists, however, relied on Spencer's notion of progressive evolution rather than Darwin's of phylogenetic diversification Rehding, Footnote 5.

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Music is embedded in the rhythmic patterns Myers, ; Sacks, ; Cross, of all societies. Dopamine is not simply a neurotransmitter underlying the brain mechanisms linked to reward.

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This draws us together and, as a social species, remains essential to us; a chorus of expression in being with others, that fundamental feature of our life and of our evolutionary ascent. The expansion of memory facilitates the wide array of what we do, including music. So far, the microevolution of tune families has been investigated largely independently in a variety of cultures and genres, without much attempt at comparing them to explore general patterns of musical evolution.

Evolution of music research paper

Nevertheless, ethnomusicologists still often equate ideas about the cultural evolution of music with those of the early comparative musicologists. Indeed, exposure to music in young children is known to promote prosocial behavior in children. Song is represented across animal worlds; birds and whales produce sounds, though not always melodic to our ears, but still rich in semantically communicative functions. What becomes quite evident early on in ontogeny is the link to the vastness of the social world in which the human neonate is trying to gain a foothold for action Tomasello and Carpenter, We came quite easily, one might surmise, to the cephalic state of enjoying music for itself, its expanding melodic and harmonic features, its endless diverse expression of sound, moving through space, and within our power to self-generate it Koelsch, From a simple adaptation there emerges lively expression in almost any culture. Microevolution and tune family research One area of research strikingly absent from the discussion of musical evolution surrounding Grauer's essay was the extensive research on microevolution of tune families groups of melodies sharing descent from a common ancestor or ancestors. Song is not surprisingly tied to a vast array of semiotics that pervade nature: calling attention to oneself, expanding oneself, selling oneself, deceiving others, reaching out to others, and calling on others. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. For example, applying phylogenetic methods from evolutionary biology to standardized lists of of the most universal and slowest-changing words e. Beethoven is one thing, the rest of us quite another. Perhaps one is now in a better position to understand the genius of Beethoven; deaf for years, he must have heard music imaginatively to compose the way he did. The expansion of memory facilitates the wide array of what we do, including music.

One view of evolution is the hypothesis that language and speech emerged between 50, andyears ago Lieberman and McCarthy,and artistic representation can be traced back to 30,—40, years ago Mellars, In fact, we now know that musical hallucinations are often a feature of acquired deafness such as Beethoven's Zatorre et al.

In a study using functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI to measure brain activity, individuals with Williams syndrome displayed greater visual cortex activation in response to music Thompson et al.

cultural evolution of music
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Cultural evolution of music