Factors and dimensions that shape society
These barriers may inhibit physical activity for parts of the population, resulting in worse overall health. Income Inequality Income inequality in a society has repeatedly been shown to be inversely associated with good health, but there is controversy about the health effects of relative income inequality apart from the effects of absolute poverty or economic hardship Subramanian and Kawachi, Cities in the United States tend to be less compact and have fewer public transportation and nonmotorized travel options and longer commuting distances than cities in other high-income countries Richardson and Bae, There is, for example, little evidence that air pollution is a more severe problem in the United States than in other high-income countries Baldasano et al. In this way, environmental factors are undoubtedly part of a self-perpetuating cycle that operates across multiple domains, but delineating exactly how this occurs—and how this may differ across place and time—will require further research. Employment Employment shapes health in diverse ways, in part by determining employment opportunities and income World Economic Forum, A key contender is the spatial sorting of people based on their socioeconomic position, race, or ethnicity. That is, the disruption of the home and restrictions on other family members inherent in complex home care in which family members may have to maintain equipment, not have friends visit, not be able to leave the home, etc. This kind of variation suggests a need to consider the full spectrum of social-ecological factors in home care. For example, ethnic and racial minorities are less likely to take advantage of preventive health services, such as vaccinations and cancer screening, even when these are available Chen et al. These modifications in gene expression, which are thought to occur through molecular processes such as histone modification and DNA methylation can be inherited and affect the health of offspring. Here we provide selected examples of the ways in which levels or distributions of physical and social environments relevant to health might differ between the United States and other high-income countries. Each of these determinants has a cultural, social, or community component. For the latter, Dressler and colleagues asked a sample of Brazilians to list the goods or possessions people need to lead a good life, or the activities people typically engage in during their free time, or who they typically turn to for different kinds of support and subjected these lists to formal analysis designed to examine the degree of consensus across respondents.
If you have a website targeted at a North American audience, you would consider different localization strategies for the U. Physical Exposures Few data are available to make cross-national comparisons of exposure to harmful physical or chemical environmental hazards. These effects are thought to induce end organ damage and cardiovascular disease Barker, ; McEwen and Gianaros, As noted above, residential segregation by income in the United States is associated with violence and related outcomes Sampson et al.
Lack of upward mobility in a society could exacerbate economic and social inequality and could plausibly affect health through a range of pathways, including by shaping optimism Boehm and Kubzansky, and health-related behaviors Dehlendorf et al.
If the same image was used in India, cutlery would not be added. In countries, like China, where the government has total control and internet censorship is common, you could easily have your website blocked for not abiding by their laws.
Developing a thorough understanding of your targeted audience will help you create content that speaks to them in a way that is culturally correct, appropriate and effective.
Differences in commitment to family care are based on cultural norms of filial piety or obligation. For example, high levels of residential segregation may create large social inequalities across neighborhoods that, in the presence of easy access to guns, may result in high gun violence and homicide rates.
American culture stresses the negative features of aging, something to be fought or covered up.
Factors and dimensions that shape society
Their language is called the "adstrate," and it affects the way they speak the dominant language. Low-skilled and low-status employment is more likely to involve exposure to physical hazards, such as toxic chemicals e. Large geographic disparities in toxic exposures to environmental hazards and in healthy food access have been repeatedly noted in U. Footnotes 1 Although analytically distinct, physical and social environments may also influence and reinforce each other: for example, physical features related to walkability may contribute to social norms regarding walking, which may in turn promote more walkable urban designs and community planning. Environmental Protection Agency, As noted in Chapters 1 and 2 , homicide rates in the United States are markedly higher than in other rich nations. Family members with experience of home care would be likely to generate a long list of answers to the first elicitation, which might include hospice services, infusion technologies, a hospital bed, a commode, smart home telemonitoring, more reliable telephone or utility service, modifications to the home to increase access, a place to store medical supplies, a separate place for visitors or other family members, and perhaps others. Neighborhood violent crime has in turn been linked to low birth weight Morenoff, and childhood asthma Wright, , two other health conditions that appear to be more common in the United States than in other high-income countries. These could include wealth, religion, buying habits, education level, family size and structure and population density. The health effects may result both from material deprivation and other conditions that directly damage health and from physiologic mechanisms involved in reactions to stress. Other important differences in work-related policies include employment protection and unemployment benefits, as well as family and sickness leave see Chapter 8. As minorities advance through the educational and occupational ladders, these differences in recourse to skilled care may lessen. Studies have shown consistent relationships between social capital and self-reported health status, as well as to some measures of mortality Barefoot et al. However, it remains unclear whether sprawl helps explain differences in levels of social capital, or health, across countries.
based on 93 review