Ideology and ideological state apparatuses

Louis althusser theory

The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. Here I shall make two comments. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective descriptive , a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity. From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. A detailed description of both structures is provided below: The infrastructure consists of the forces, the means, and the relations of production. Survive: the terms subject, consciousness, belief, actions. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name the subject with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the subject which may function under other names: e. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.

The created apparatuses can be divided into two camps: infrastructure and superstructure, where the former is the operating economy ex.

We see ourselves as autonomous and empowered individuals, when they are in fact oppressed subjects.

school as ideological state apparatus

Even after a social revolution like that ofa large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again.

What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought.

Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures.

Family as ideological state apparatus

It represents an imaginary relationship of the individuals to their conditions of existence. People tend to be co-opted by fear of social rejection , e. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term and naturally repents and so on. Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar since Capital Volume Two and uniquely ignored. Ideology has material existence. Ideology has no History One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at least to justify, the project of a theory of ideology in general, and not a theory of particular ideologies, which, whatever their form religious, ethical, legal, political , always express class positions. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc.

That was a passing hint. All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools.

I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology to be precise, in the streetin reality takes place in ideology. I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices.

On the reproduction of capitalism: ideology and ideological state apparatuses

The created apparatuses can be divided into two camps: infrastructure and superstructure, where the former is the operating economy ex. But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State. The basic, social function of the RSA government, courts, police and armed forces, etc. Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside for itself , but at the same time that it is nothing but outside for science and reality. Even after a social revolution like that of , a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force physical or otherwise the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation.

Wages are set not by biological needs but by the historical minimum. A detailed description of both structures is provided below: The infrastructure consists of the forces, the means, and the relations of production.

In fact, i.

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Ideology And Ideological State Apparatuses Summary By Althusser