Phonological development in children
The most frequent phonological processes in all age groups were: consonant cluster simplification, liquid simplification, simplification and of final consonant and syllable reduction.
To assess the phonological development, it is essential to analyze the child's speech depending on the adult's phonological system. Children younger than 12 years generally preferred the compound reading i.
Finally, the process of assimilation or sound harmony are processes in which a sound is totally or partly adapted to the next in syllable5,9.
Regarding phonological awareness, was verified a development because of the advance in age. The registry considers whether appointment or repetition was performed. If a child has phonological processes beyond the expected age, it is regarded as having phonological disorder The test has sequential characteristics, namely, the tasks must be carried out respecting an order of complexity. Simplification in production Until they master the full range of articulatory programs necessary for the variety of legal word shapes in their language, children often fall short of adult pronunciations in their own production. This test is divided into two parts where the first corresponds to the syllable level composed of nine items: synthesis, segmentation, initial syllable identification, rhyme identification, production of a word with a given syllable, medial syllable identification, rhyme production, deletion and transposition. Google Scholar 5. Table 2 shows the means and standard deviations for performance on phonological awareness test syllabic level, phonemic level and total for each age group group. Babbling provides children with the opportunity to experiment with and begin to gain control over their vocal apparatus—an important prerequisite for later speech. In a way, this difficulty was expected because the test used CONFIAS is recommended for children from 4 years by the difficulty in assessing phonological awareness in children aged 2 and 3 years Another explanation is that individual sounds do not easily translate into beats, which makes clapping individual phonemes a much more difficult task than clapping syllables. After completion of data collection, the results were coded in numeric variables to build a database by using the SPSS Google Scholar 4.
Developmental order Babbling increases in frequency until the age of about twelve months, at which time it begins to give way to intelligible words.
This test is divided into two parts where the first corresponds to the syllable level composed of nine items: synthesis, segmentation, initial syllable identification, rhyme identification, production of a word with a given syllable, medial syllable identification, rhyme production, deletion and transposition.
This process is specific to English and languages with a retroflex or bunched alveolar approximant Locke The correct answers value 1 point and that incorrect value zero.
Maternal education also will determine the child's mental development, i. They omit some sounds altogether and substitute some sounds for others.
Thus, it is fundamental investigations aiming at determining the influence of linguistic variety spoken in the Metropolitan Region of Recife on the issues discussed.
There is considerable consistency in the problems children encounter in production, so their own forms can often be described in terms of characteristic substitutions, assimilations, and omissions, by comparison with the adult targets they are attempting.
In a way, this difficulty was expected because the test used CONFIAS is recommended for children from 4 years by the difficulty in assessing phonological awareness in children aged 2 and 3 years New Jersey: Pearson Education Company. Phonological processes most commonly used by children were: consonant cluster simplification, liquid simplification, final consonant simplification and syllable reduction. As more sounds of a language are acquired, language becomes clearer, and pronunciation, fluency, and intonation all improve. Therefore, it can be observed that the neurodevelopmental is conditioned to individual, educational and social aspects, not being considered as a pattern2,3. Starting around 6 months babies also show an influence of the ambient language in their babbling , i. Language Arts, 66, — The analysis revealed no statistically significant differences, i. Brookes, With regard to the liquid simplification process, the results of this investigation differ from the literature 27,28, which indicates the age of acquisition of the liquid simplification process as being years; however, this process operated by the G6 in children aged between and years in this study.
Note that this process is commonly operative only in the final syllable of words, suggesting the influence of linguistic variety spoken in the city of Recife, and this variety must be considered in the assessment of phonological development.
Other authors3 investigated phonological acquisition in children with a history of malnutrition and stated that the fronting and backing are processes that disappear around age 4.
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