Dunning of Columbia University created a school of historiography that seconded the notion that Reconstruction was a grievous error. Conclusion: The Effects of Reconstruction Conclusion: The Effects of Reconstruction Reconstruction was a significant chapter in the history of civil rights in the United States, but most historians consider it a failure.
Moderates and conservatives wanted the South to be readily admitted into the Union and Congress. It ordered freed slaves to sign labor contracts with former masters and other white landowners.
A whole school of literature and history sprang up to carry the message far and wide: Terrible, terrible things had been done to the good and innocent white people of the South during Reconstruction.
The following list describes some schools of thought regarding Reconstruction: The Dunning School considered failure inevitable and felt that taking the right to vote or hold office away from Southern whites was a violation of republicanism.
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Learning Objectives Evaluate the successes and failures of Reconstruction Key Takeaways Key Points Reconstruction was a failure according to most historians, but many disagree as to the reasons for that failure.
Blacks of the era saw Birth of a Nation for what it was, and organized protests in various venues where it was screened. On the other hand, white-supremacy groups, Jim Crow laws, and state constitutions effectively negated these political gains and subjected black Americans to second-class citizenry.